Author Archives: kc7txm

About kc7txm

Matt Karls has a PhD in IT and is an Electrical Engineer. He works in management within the software development, IT and SEO fields and is the owner of Karls Technology. He has four kids and lives in the Phoenix metro area (when he is not travelling around to our different offices).

1TB SD Card

SanDisk just announced a new 1TB SD card (specifically a SDXC card) that is currently in prototype phase. The new card is aimed at the storage market for 4K and 8K video recorders or any other device that needs ultra high resolution video files (i.e. tons of storage space, like Virtual Reality VR playback devices).

SanDisk is one of the best flash and SD card manufacturers on the market.  It is one of the top brands we at Karls Technology recommend to our clients.  You can read more about the new cards in this article.

Was there a major Google algorithm change this week?

We started noticing last week that most of the websites we do SEO services for started changing in position in google search.  Google has finally made a statement that the massive fluctuations in page values is not a major algorithm change but is part of “normal fluctuations.”

There seems to be a consensus forming in the SEO community that despite what Google is saying they made a major algorithm update this last week.  We are seeing a lot of movement in positions especially for our clients that were effected by the last Google Penguin update.  I think this shows that content is king as our higher quality content sites see to be less impacted and possibly even boosted.  Time will tell if this event is considered Penguin update 5.0 (or maybe what Google is saying is this isn’t a major algorithm change but it is Penguin update 4.5) or not.

Microsoft ending Windows update patches for Windows 7 and Windows 8

Microsoft announced, last week, that they will end the normal Windows update patches for Windows 7 and Windows 8 in October 2016.  The normal Windows Update process will be replaced with a single monthly rollup that patches both security and reliability issues in a single package.  Each month’s rollup package will contain previous months rollups so only one package will need to be installed to bring your Windows operating system up to date.

https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/windowsitpro/2016/08/15/further-simplifying-servicing-model-for-windows-7-and-windows-8-1/

There are some clear cut advantages and disadvantages to this new updating patching system.  You will now only need to install one update if you ever need to reinstall your operating system.  Windows 7 updates go back years and can take hours of rebooting, downloading and installing to bring a new computer up to date.  One big disadvantage is if you currently skip any updates (for instance the much disliked auto update to Windows 10 update) they will be installed with the first month’s rollup package.  There will also be no method to test or remove individual updates and patches that cause issue with older software or hardware.  This Windows 10 like all or nothing update method can cause a issues after each monthly rollup is released.

If you have any questions post a comment or contact the office at 480-240-2950 and If you have any issues with your computer after an update give us a call and we can fix your system for you.

Scheduling Windows 2000’s Disk Defragmenter

Contrary to what you might have heard, NTFS partitions in Windows 2000 (Win2K) and Windows NT do fragment over time. The system doesn’t write files in contiguous areas on the hard disk. The larger the volume size, the more fragmented your hard disk is likely to become. As a result, it takes longer for the OS to access files and folders because it must perform extra disk reads to collect all the pieces. Even creating new files takes longer because the OS must locate free space scattered across the volume.

What Is Defragmentation?

Disk defragmentation is the process of reassembling files and folders in one location on a volume. The process, which works only on local volumes, consolidates files and folders in one contiguous place. Defragmentation results in improved disk access because it consolidates most—but not all—of the volume’s free space. The time it takes to defragment a volume depends on several factors, including the size of the volume, the amount of fragmentation, the number of files and folders, and the available system resources. In Win2K, you can defragment all three types of supported file systems: FAT, FAT 32, and NTFS.

The Win2K Disk Defragmenter

Win2K includes a limited version of Executive Software’s Disk Defragmenter. After logging on as an administrator, you can access the tool from Start, Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Disk Defragmenter (you can’t execute the tool, dfrgntfs.exe, from the command prompt). The Disk Defragmenter console, which consists of two main areas: The upper area shows all the local volumes available on the disk, and the lower area shows how fragmented the highlighted volume is. The color legend at the bottom of the screen displays the fragmented, contiguous, and system files in red, blue, and green, respectively. The free space appears in white. The green areas, which appear only on NTFS volumes, represent the NTFS system files that you can’t move.

Defragmentation Analysis Reports

The analysis report gives you several pieces of useful information, including volume size, cluster size, and the amount of free and used space. You can also see information on volume, file, pagefile, directory (aka folder), and Master File Table (MFT) fragmentation. I find the average file size, listed under file fragmentation, particularly useful because it helps me determine an optimum cluster size for my volume. If the average file size is small, I’ll keep the cluster size small so I don’t waste disk space.

A good indication of fragmentation is the average fragments per file, listed under the report’s file fragmentation section. The optimum number is 1.00. If your fragments per file are 1.10, then about 10 percent of your files exist in two pieces. A value of 1.20 means 20 percent, and so on. If the fragments per file is 2.0, your files average two fragments each; 3.0 means three fragments each, and so on. The analysis report also shows you which files didn’t defragment. You can print or save the analysis reports in a text file.

The Defragmentation Process

It’s a good idea to analyze the volume before you start the defragmentation process. Doing so will not only let’s you determine whether you need defragmentation, but also lets you compare before and after pictures so that you can see the improvement. As I mentioned earlier, Disk Defragmenter doesn’t consolidate all the free space on a volume; it moves these areas of free space into one location. You can’t completely consolidate free space for several reasons: The pagefile is fragmented; NTFS reserves a portion of free space on NTFS partitions for the MFT; and partitions that contain many folders contribute to free space fragmentation. If the analysis report indicates that you need to defragment your volume, you can proceed with the defragmentation process. Screen 1 shows the analysis and the result of defragmentation in the graphical window on the bottom half of the console.

Defragmentation Tips

You can’t defragment certain system files, including the pagefile and the MFT, because they’re in use during normal Windows operations. One way to defragment a pagefile is to temporarily move it to a different volume. For example, to defragment the existing pagefile on your D: drive:

  1. Run the Disk Defragmenter tool to defrag the D: drive.
  2. Create a new pagefile on a different drive (e.g., the C: drive) and delete the one on the D: drive by setting its size to zero. Reboot your computer.
  3. Recreate the pagefile on the D: drive and delete the one on the C: drive by setting its size to zero.
  4. Reboot your computer one more time.

The system will create the new pagefile on the D: drive in a contiguous space, assuming you have enough contiguous disk space on the drive.

You should analyze your volume after deleting a large number of files or folders. For example, if you delete the I386 folder that contains Win2K source files or other large files such as video files, you should run Disk Defragmenter. You can only run one instance at a time. You should defragment file servers more often than desktop workstations because file servers frequently become fragmented.

Scheduling Disk Defragmenter

You should schedule file-server defragmentation during off-peak hours to minimize the effects on server performance. Unfortunately, Microsoft doesn’t provide an easy way to schedule disk defragmentation in Win2K. Because you can’t execute dfrgntfs.exe from a command prompt, you can’t use a batch file or task scheduler to schedule the process. However, Listing 1, which you can download from Article Info box at the top of this page, contains a Visual Basic (VB) script that runs the tool at scheduled intervals. You can modify the script, which I’ve named dfrgntfs.vbs, to fit your needs. It starts the defragmentation process and closes the window when it’s finished. Use the Scheduled Tasks tool, located in System Tools, to schedule this script. I’ve scheduled the script to run every Friday at 8:00 P.M. Make sure you select the Advanced tab to configure several additional options.


This is an archive of Zubair Alexander’s Scheduling Windows 2000’s Disk Defragmenter (windowsitpro.com) which disappeared from the internet in 2012. We wanted to preserve Zubair Alexander’s knowledge about Windows 2000 software and are permanently hosting a selection of important pages from WindowsITpro.